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accounts receivable factoring

Accounts Receivable Factoring: A Complete Guide

Accounts Receivable Factoring is a financial solution that could enable your business to convert unpaid invoices into immediate cash. This factoring can benefit companies facing cash flow challenges or seeking to accelerate their business growth. In this comprehensive guide, we'll walk you through the process of accounts receivable factoring and provide insights to help you decide if accounts receivable invoice factoring is the right decision for your business.

What Is Accounts Receivable Factoring?

Accounts Receivable Factoring involves selling your outstanding invoices to a third-party financial institution, known as a factoring company, at a discount. The factoring company then advances you a portion of the invoice value, providing you with quick access to much-needed funds. The factoring company assumes the responsibility of collecting payment from your customers.

General Steps Involved in Accounts Receivable Factoring

Step 1: Application and Due Diligence

  • Choose a reputable factoring company and apply.
  • The factoring company conducts due diligence to assess the risk, including credit checks on customers.

Step 2: Agreement Terms and Rates

  • Negotiate terms with the factoring company, including the factoring fee, advance rate, and other potential fees.
  • Choose between recourse and non-recourse factoring based on your risk tolerance.

Step 3: Invoice Submission

  • Submit your unpaid invoices to the factoring company for verification.
  • Include relevant invoice details and any supporting documentation.

Step 4: Invoice Verification and Approval

  • The factoring company verifies the authenticity of the invoices and confirms your customers' acceptance of the goods or services.

Step 5: Advance and Reserve

  • Upon approval, the factoring company advances you a percentage (e.g., 80%) of the invoice value.
  • The remaining percentage (e.g., 20%) is held in reserve until the customer pays the invoice.

Step 6: Collection

  • The factoring company takes over the responsibility of collecting payments from your customers.
  • They handle communication and follow-ups regarding payment.

Step 7: Customer Payment

  • Your customers make payments directly to the factoring company.
  • The factoring company deducts the factoring fee and any other applicable fees from the reserve.

Step 8: Reserve Release

  • Once the customer pays the invoice in full, the factoring company releases the reserve to you, minus their fees.

Pros and Cons of Accounts Receivable Factoring


  • Immediate Cash Flow: Access funds quickly to cover operational expenses, investments, and growth opportunities.
  • Reduced Administrative Burden: The factoring company handles collections and related paperwork.
  • No Debt Incurred: Factoring is not a loan; you're selling an asset (invoices) to obtain funds.
  • Credit Risk Mitigation: Non-recourse factoring transfers credit risk to the factoring company.


  • Cost: Factoring fees can be relatively high, impacting your profit margins.
  • Customer Perception: Some customers might view invoice factoring as a sign of financial instability.
  • Less Control: The factoring company manages customer interactions, which could affect your relationships.
  • Selective Customer Approval: Not all customers may meet the factoring company's credit criteria.

Choosing the Right Factoring Company

Consider the following factors:

  • Reputation and Experience: Research the factoring company's track record and industry expertise.
  • Fee Structure: Compare factoring fees, advance rates, and additional charges.
  • Customer Service: Evaluate their communication, responsiveness, and support quality.
  • Contract Terms: Carefully review contract duration, termination clauses, and any hidden fees.
  • Reporting and Transparency: Ensure you have access to real-time reports on your factored invoices.

When to Consider Accounts Receivable Factoring For Your Business

  1. Seasonal or Fluctuating Cash Flow: Businesses with seasonal revenue patterns or those that experience fluctuations in sales can benefit from factoring to maintain stability during lean periods.
  2. Rapid Growth or Expansion: Growing businesses often require significant capital injections to fuel their expansion plans. Factoring can provide the necessary funds to scale up without compromising daily operations.
  3. Startup Funding: Startups often struggle to secure financing due to limited operating history or lack of collateral. Factoring offers a financing option that's based on your customer invoices rather than your business's credit history.
  4. Managing Operational Expenses: Meeting operational expenses, such as payroll, rent, and supplier payments, is crucial for business continuity. Factoring can offer relief when these expenses come due before customer payments are received.
  5. Leveraging Supplier Discounts: If your suppliers offer discounts for early payments, factoring can help you take advantage of these opportunities by providing the necessary cash to settle invoices promptly.
  6. Improved Negotiating Power: Having cash on hand strengthens your position in negotiations with suppliers, allowing you to negotiate better terms or discounts due to your ability to make timely payments.

Financial Flexibility at Your Fingertips

Accounts Receivable Factoring isn't a one-size-fits-all solution, but it's a powerful tool that can help businesses navigate financial challenges and unlock growth opportunities. When chosen wisely and utilized strategically, factoring provides the means to maintain steady cash flow, invest in expansion, and keep your business running smoothly. As with any financial decision, careful consideration of your business's unique circumstances and goals is key. By exploring the benefits of factoring and understanding when it's most advantageous, you can harness its potential to propel your business forward.

Alternatives to Accounts Receivable Factoring

  • Invoice Financing: Similar to factoring but you retain control over collections.
  • Traditional Loans: Borrowing from financial institutions, which may require collateral and have different terms.
  • Equity Financing: Selling shares of your company to investors in exchange for capital.

How Much Does Accounts Receivable Factoring Cost?

Accounts Receivable Factoring is a financial arrangement that allows businesses to convert their outstanding invoices into immediate cash. This can provide much-needed liquidity to businesses that are waiting for their customers to pay their invoices. However, like any financial service, accounts receivable factoring comes with costs that businesses need to consider.

Discount or Factoring Fee:

This is the primary cost of accounts receivable factoring. It's the fee charged by the factoring company for advancing funds against your outstanding invoices. The fee is typically a percentage of the total invoice amount and can vary based on factors such as the creditworthiness of your customers, the volume of invoices being factored, and the terms of the factoring agreement. It usually ranges from 1% to 5% of the invoice amount.

Advance Rate:

The advance rate is the percentage of the invoice value that the factoring company advances to you upfront. This percentage can vary, but it's typically around 70% to 90% of the invoice amount. The remaining percentage, known as the reserve, is held by the factoring company until your customer pays the invoice. Once your customer pays, you receive the reserve minus the factoring fee.

Interest or Service Charge:

Some factoring companies charge an ongoing interest or service charge on the outstanding amount they've advanced to you. This charge accumulates as long as the invoice remains unpaid by your customer. Not all factoring arrangements include this charge, so be sure to clarify this with the factoring company.

Due Diligence and Credit Checks:

Factoring companies often conduct due diligence and credit checks on customers before deciding to factor your invoices. While this isn't a direct fee, it's an indirect cost as it can affect your agreement terms. If your customers have poor credit scores, the factoring company might charge higher fees or offer a lower advance rate to mitigate their risk.

Additional Fees:

Be aware of any additional fees that might be included in the factoring agreement. These could include application fees, setup fees, processing fees, wire transfer fees, and more. Make sure you understand the complete fee structure before agreeing.

Minimum Volume or Monthly Fees:

Some factoring companies may require you to factor a minimum volume of invoices each month. You might be charged a monthly fee if you don't meet this requirement. Ensure you understand the terms regarding minimum volume and monthly fees.

Contract Length and Termination Fees:

Factoring agreements often have contract lengths, such as 6 months or 1 year. If you decide to terminate the contract early, termination fees or penalties might be involved. Carefully review the terms related to contract duration and termination.

Recourse vs. Non-Recourse Factoring:

In recourse factoring, if your customer fails to pay the invoice, you're responsible for buying back the invoice from the factoring company. In non-recourse factoring, the factoring company assumes the credit risk, and you won't be held responsible if your customer doesn't pay. Non-recourse factoring generally comes with higher fees due to the increased risk for the factoring company.

Volume Discounts:

Some factoring companies offer volume discounts, where the factoring fee decreases as your invoice volume increases. If your business generates a significant number of invoices, inquire about the possibility of volume discounts.

Comparing Multiple Offers:

It's crucial to shop around and compare offers from different factoring companies. Don't solely focus on the factoring fee; consider the entire fee structure, including additional fees and advance rates. Choose a factoring company that aligns with your business needs and financial goals.

Remember, while accounts receivable factoring can provide valuable cash flow, it's essential to thoroughly understand the costs involved before agreeing. Carefully review the terms of the factoring agreement and consider consulting with financial advisors or accountants to ensure that factoring is the right choice for your business's financial situation.

Simple Example Of Accounts Receivable

Let's walk through an example of how much accounts receivable factoring might cost based on average figures. Remember that actual costs can vary widely based on factors such as the specific factoring company, your industry, customer creditworthiness, and the terms negotiated in your agreement.


  • Total Invoice Value: $100,000
  • Factoring Fee: 3% of the invoice value
  • Advance Rate: 80% of the invoice value
  • Additional Fees: None
  • Customer Payment Terms: Net 30 days


  • Factoring Fee: Factoring Fee = Total Invoice Value × Factoring Fee Percentage Factoring Fee = $100,000 × 0.03 = $3,000
  • Advance Amount: Advance Amount = Total Invoice Value × Advance Rate Advance Amount = $100,000 × 0.80 = $80,000
  • Reserve Amount: Reserve Amount = Total Invoice Value – Advance Amount Reserve Amount = $100,000 – $80,000 = $20,000
  • Customer Payment and Reserve Release: Once the customer pays the invoice after 30 days, the factoring company deducts their fees from the reserve and releases the remaining funds to you.
    Assuming the customer pays the full $100,000 invoice amount: Reserve Release = Reserve Amount – Factoring Fee Reserve Release = $20,000 – $3,000 = $17,000

In this example, with a factoring fee of 3% and an advance rate of 80%, the factoring company would provide the customer with an upfront advance of $80,000. After the customer pays the invoice, the factoring company deducts their fees and releases the remaining reserve amount of $17,000 to you.

Final Thoughts On Invoice Factoring

Remember that this is a simplified example and doesn't account for additional fees, variations in factoring terms, interest charges (if applicable), or potential changes in customer payment behavior. It's essential to thoroughly review the factoring agreement and understand all costs involved before entering such an arrangement.

To get started with invoice factoring, click the button above for Midwest Business Funding, and we would be happy to discuss your needs.

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